Sometimes, the big toe can become angled outwards towards the middle of the foot and second toe. This forces the top of the first metatarsal to stick out from the side of the foot at the base of the big toe. If this happens, the bones can become misaligned and a painful bunion can form. It is not known exactly what causes bunions, but wearing badly fitting shoes is thought to make the condition worse. Research also suggests that bunions may run in families. It is thought that bunions are more likely to occur in people who have unusually flexible joints, and that this flexibility may be inherited. In some cases, certain health conditions, such as rheumatoid arthritis and gout, may also be responsible for the formation of bunions. These conditions cause pain and inflammation in the joints.
Bunions form when the normal balance of forces that is exerted on the joints and tendons of the foot becomes disrupted. This disruption can lead to instability in the joint and cause the deformity. Bunions are brought about by years of abnormal motion and pressure over the MTP joint. They are, therefore, a symptom of faulty foot development and are usually caused by the way we walk and our inherited foot type or our shoes.
A bony bump along the edge of the foot, at the base of the big toe (adjacent to the ball of the foot) Redness and some swelling at or near the big toe joint. Deep dull pain in the big toe joint. Dull achy pain in the big toe joint after walking or a sharp pain while walking. The big toe is overlapping the second toe, resulting in redness, calluses, or other irritations such as corns.
The doctor considers a bunion as a possible diagnosis when noting the symptoms described above. The anatomy of the foot, including joint and foot function, is assessed during the examination. Radiographs (X-ray films) of the foot can be helpful to determine the integrity of the joints of the foot and to screen for underlying conditions, such as arthritis or gout. X-ray films are an excellent method of calculating the alignment of the toes when taken in a standing position.
Non Surgical Treatment
Treatment falls into two broad categories, conservative and surgical. From a conservative standpoint, efforts are directed at correcting faulty foot mechanics with custom molded insoles and relief of symptoms. These include Custom Orthosis to stabilize the abnormal motion of the hind and fore foot. Shoe gear modification: Using shoes with larger toe boxed and more supple materials. Changes in activities. Try to avoid those things which cause symptoms. Anti-inflammatory medication for periodic relief this includes cortisone injections into the joint as well as oral medication.
The choice of surgical procedures (bunionectomy) is based on a biomechanical and radiographic examination of the foot. Because there is actual bone displacement and joint adaptation, most successful bunionectomies require cutting and realigning the 1st metatarsal (an osteotomy). Simply "shaving the bump" is often inadequate in providing long-term relief of symptoms and in some cases can actually cause the bunion to progress faster. The most common procedure performed for the correction of bunions is the 1st metatarsal neck osteotomy, near the level of the joint. This refers to the anatomical site on the 1st metatarsal where the actual bone cut is made. Other procedures are preformed in the shaft of the metatarsal bone (see procedures preformed in the shaft of the metatarsal) and still other procedures are selected by the surgeon that are preformed in the base of the metatarsal bone (see surgeries preformed in the base of the metatarsal).
Shop for shoes that possess a removable liner, or insole, and stand on the liner after you have removed it from your shoe. This is an effective method to see if your shoe is wide enough in the forefoot to accommodate your bunion. If your bunion and forefoot are wider than the insole, your shoe will squeeze and constrict your bunion and create the symptoms that define this health problem. The insole should also be wide enough to fully accommodate your big toe when it points outward, away from your other toes.